જાણો ડોનાલ્ડ ટ્રમ્પએ કઈ રીતે કર્યો પોતાના 2016 ચુંટણી કેમ્પેઈનમાં કેમ્બ્રિજ એનાલિટીકાનો ઉપયોગ કર્યો

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એલેક્ઝાન્ડર કોગન મનોવિજ્ઞાની અને માહિતી વૈજ્ઞાનિક છે જેઓ કેમ્બ્રિજ યુનિવર્સિટીમાં પ્રોફેસર તરીકે સેવા આપી રહ્યા છે. વાત શરૂ થાય છે 2015 થી જ્યારે કેમ્બ્રિજ એનલિટીકાએ  એલેક્ઝાન્ડર કોગનને લોકોના ડેટા ચોરી કરવા માટે એક એપ બનાવવાનો સુજાવ આપ્યો. આથી એલેકઝાન્ડર કોગને ફેસબુક પ્લેટફોર્મ પર ચાલતી “ઇટ્સ માય ડિજિટલ લાઇફ” નામની એપ્લિકેશન બનાવી હતી. હવે વાત કરીશું કેમ્બ્રિજ એનલિટીકાએ વિશે કેમ્બ્રિજ એનલિટીકા બ્રિટિશ પોલિટિકલ કંસલટંસીની પેઢી છે જે 2004 માં શરૂ કરવામાં આવી હતી. કેમ્બ્રિજ એનાલિટીકા રોબર્ટ મર્સર નામના બીલીઓનીયરની કંપની છે અને CA નું પરેન્ટ ગ્રુપ SCL પ્રાઇવેટ લિમિટેડ છે. કેમ્બ્રિજ એનલિટીકાએ પરવાનગી વગર ફેસબુકના 5 મિલિયન વપરાશકર્તા ઓનો ડેટા ચોરી કર્યો હતો. કેસ વધ્યા પછી, કેમ્બ્રિજ એનાલિટીકાએ તેના ચીફ એક્ઝિક્યુટિવ એલેક્ઝાન્ડર નોક્સને સસ્પેન્ડ કર્યા છે. કેમ્બ્રિજ એનાલિટીકાએ 2016 ની રાષ્ટ્રપ્રમુખ ડોનાલ્ડ ટ્રમ્પના ચુંટણી પ્રચાર દરમિયાન તેમની મદદ કરી હતી. ચૂંટણી દરમિયાન કેમ્બ્રિજ એનાલિક્ટા ડોનાલ્ડ ટ્રમ્પ માટે ડેટા પુરવાર કરતા હતા.

 

ફેસબુકના જણાવ્યા મુજબ કેમ્બ્રીજના લેક્ચરર એલેક્ઝાન્ડર કોગને જે એપ બનાવી હતી તએ એપ્લિકેશન દ્વારા ફેસબુકના પ્લેટફોર્મના માધ્યમથી ડેટા લેવામાં આવ્યો હતો. તેઓ કાયદેસર રીતે આ ડેટા લીધો હતો, અને ત્યારબાદ નિયમો તોડી અને તેમણે કેમ્બ્રિજ એનાલિટીકાને તે ડેટા વહેંચી દીધો હતો. આ અંગેની માહિતી ફેસબુકને 2015 મળી હતી, પરંતુ ફેસબુકએ વપરાશકર્તાઓને આ બાબતે માહિતી આપી નહોતી. તેના બદલે કંપનીએ આ કેસમાં સામેલ તમામ પાર્ટીના વપરાશકર્તાઓના ડેટાને કાઢી નાખવા કહ્યું છે. પરંતુ જે મુજબ રિપોર્ટ આવે છે તે પ્રમાણે તમામ ડેટાને હજુ પણ રદ્દ કરવામાં નથી આવ્યા.

 

ઝુકરબર્ગે જણાવ્યું હતું કે કોગનની એપ્લિકેશન લગભગ 3 લાખ લોકોએ ડાઉનલોડ કરી છે. તેમાં કોગનને તેના મિત્રોના ડેટા પણ પહોંચાડ્યા છે,  જે મુજબ લગભગ 1 કરોડ લોકોના ડેટા કોગન પાસે પહોંચ્યા છે. ન્યૂયોર્ક ટાઇમ્સના અહેવાલ મુજબ, આ આંકડો આશરે 5 કરોડ લોકોના ડેટાનો છે. ઝુકરબર્ગે જણાવ્યું હતું કે આ કારણે કોગન, કેમ્બ્રિજએનાલિટીકા અને ફેસબુક વચ્ચેના વિશ્વાસ તુટ્યો છે, પરંતુ તે ફેસબુક અને તેના વપરાશકર્તાઓ વચ્ચે વિશ્વાસ પણ તોડ્યો છે.

 

વપરાશકર્તાઓના ડેટા સાથે શું થાય છે?

 

તે ડેટામાં વ્યક્તિઓના નામ, નંબર, રહેઠાણ, મોબાઈલના કોલ રેકોર્ડ, તેઓ કઈ-કઈ એપ્લિકેશન વાપરે છે, તેમના કેટલા પુત્રો છે, તેમનું સાંસારિક જીવન કેવું છે, તેમના માતાપિતા કોણ છે, તમને કઈ કઈ બાબતોમાં રૂચી છે જેવી અનેક બાબતોનો તે ડેટામાં સમાવેશ થાય છે. ફેસબુકના લીક ડેટાનો ઉપયોગ કેમ્બ્રિજ એનાલિટીકા દ્વારા મતદારો સુધી પહોંચવા માટે કરવામાં આવ્યો હતો. મતદારોના પસંદગીના આધારે હાયપર-ટાર્ગેટેડ સંદેશા મોકલવામાં આવે છે. આ ડેટા એલ્ગોરીધમ પર ચાલે છે જેમાં લોકોની સાયકોગ્રાફી/સાયકોમેટ્રિક રીત દ્વારા માનસિકતા જાણી શકાય છે, જેમાં તેમણે ફેસબુક અને અન્ય ઑનલાઇન પ્લેટફોર્મનો ઉપયોગ કર્યો હતો. આ પ્રોસેસ દ્વારા લોકોની માનસિકતા જાણી આપણાં પસંદની વસ્તુઓ દેખાડી તેમને આપણા વિચારો તરફ આકર્ષિત કરી અને બ્રેઇનવોશ કરી શકાય છે.

ઘણી કંપનીઓ આ ડેટા પર આધારિત સાયકોલોજીકલ પ્રોફાઇલ તૈયાર કરે છે, જેનો ઉપયોગ કેમ્પેઈન દરમિયાન મતદારોને નિશાન બનાવવા માટે થાય છે.

 

કેમ્બ્રિજ એનાલિટીકા અને ટ્રમ્પનું  2016 ચુંટણી કેમ્પેઈન

 

કેમ્બ્રિજ એનાલિટીકાએ 2016 ની યુ.એસ. રાષ્ટ્રપ્રમુખની ચુંટણીમાં પણ આવી જ પેટર્નનું પ્રદર્શન કર્યું હોવાનું જણાય છે. રાષ્ટ્રપતિ ડોનાલ્ડ ટ્રમ્પએ આવી જ રીતે કેમ્બ્રિજ એનાલિટીકાની મદદ લઇ અને અમેરિકાના મત પોતાની તરફ આકર્ષિત કરી લીધા હતા. ડીજીટલ રીતે ટ્રમ્પની સારી વાતો લોકો સુધી વારંવાર પહોચાડવામાં આવી હતી અને આ રીતે હેલેરી ક્લીન્ટન જેવા દિગ્ગજ નેતાને ટ્રમ્પ હરાવી શક્યા.

 જયારે ડીજીટલ વસ્તુઓના વપરાશની વાત કરવામાં આવે ત્યારે ટ્રમ્પના ડીજીટલ એડવાઇઝરએ લોકો સામે ચોંકાવનારી વાત સામે લાવી હતી કે ટ્રમ્પને સામાન્ય મેઈલ કરવામાં પણ પ્રોબ્લેમ આવે છે. 

અમેરિકા અને યુરોપીયનાં કાયદા ઘડનારાઓએ પ્રમુખ ડોનાલ્ડ ટ્રમ્પ ચૂંટણી પ્રચાર પર કામ કરતા હતા ત્યારે તેની કન્સલ્ટિંગ ફર્મની માહિતીઓ કેવી રીતે મેળવી તે અંગે સ્પષ્ટતા કરવાની માંગ કરી હતી. 2016 માં ટ્રમ્પના ડિજિટલ ડિરેક્ટર બ્રેડ પાર્સેલેના માર્ગદર્શન હેઠળ, કેમ્બ્રિજ એનાલિટીકાએ ડિજિટલ જાહેરાતો અને ચુંટણી ફંડ એકત્રિત કરવાની અપીલ માટે મદદ કરી હતી.

કેમ્બ્રિજ એનાલિટીકાએ ટાર્ગેટ ઓડીયન્સની રચના વિષે માહિતીનું માળખું બનાવી આપ્યું હતું જેથી કઈ જગ્યાએ કેમ્પેઈન કરવું અને કઈ જનતાને ઓળખવી વગેરે જેવા કામ સરળ બન્યા હતા. મતદારનું મોડેલિંગ, ટેલિવિઝન જાહેરાતો જેવી ઉપરની બધી બાબતોમાં સાયકોગ્રાફિક ડેટા બનાવી કેમ્પેઈનને સફળ બનાવવા માટે 5 મિલિયન ડોલરનો ચૂંટણી પાછળ ખર્ચ કર્યો હતો. ડોનાલ્ડ ટ્રમ્પને ક્યારે અને ક્યાં મુસાફરી કરવી તે નક્કી કરવા સહિત વિવિધ પ્રકારની સેવાઓ કેમ્બ્રિજ એનાલિટીકાએ કરી હતી. આજ રીતે કેમ્બ્રિજ એનાલિટીકાએ ડોનાલ્ડ ટ્રમ્પના કેમ્પેઈન દરમિયાન 22 મિલિયન મતાધિકારી લોકોની માહિતીઓ 17 વિભાગમાં વહેંચીને આપી હતી.

 

ધ વેજનાં જણાવ્યા મુજબ, SCL કંપનીએ હરીફ હિલેરી ક્લિન્ટન કરતાં ટ્રમ્પને વધુ અસરકારક રીતે ફેસબુક પર મતદારોને લક્ષ્યાંકિત કરવા માટે મદદ કરી હતી. જો કે, ટ્રમ્પ-રશિયાની સંડોવણીની તપાસ કરી રહેલા ખાસ સલાહકાર રોબર્ટ મ્યુલર માને છે કે કેસનો નિર્ધાર કરવામાં આ નવો ખુલાસો મદદ કરી શકે છે. ધી વોલ સ્ટ્રીટ જર્નલના જણાવ્યા મુજબ, મ્યુલરે કેમ્બ્રિજ એનાલિટીકાને વિનંતી કરી છે કે “2016 ની યુ.એસ.ની ચૂંટણીમાં રશિયન દખલગીરીમાં તેની તપાસના ભાગરૂપે દસ્તાવેજો દર્શાવે” કારણ એમ હતું કે રશિયાએ CA ને નાણાવ્યું હતું કે તેઓ લોકોને એમ જણાવી દે કે ટ્રમ્પની ચૂંટણી પ્રસારનું કામ રશિયાએ તેમને સોંપ્યું હતું.

 

દસ્તાવેજો પર નજર કરવામાં આવે તો ડોનાલ્ડ ટ્રમ્પના એકાઉન્ટથી કેમ્બ્રિજ એનાલિટીકાને પુષ્કળ માત્રામાં રૂપિયા ટ્રાન્સફર કરવામાં આવ્યા હતા.  

 

કેમ્બ્રિજ એનાલિટીકાનું 2016 કેમ્પેઈન માળખું :

 

જેમકે આપણે જાણીએ છીએ કે ફેસબુકના 50 મિલિયન લોકોનો ડેટા લિક થઇ ચુક્યો હતો. જે ડેટા કેમ્બ્રિજ યુનિવર્સીટીના પ્રોફેસર એલેક્સેન્ડર કોગનએ માર્ક ઝકરબર્ગના ફેસબુક પ્લેટફોર્મ પરથી લીધો હતો. પ્રોફેસર એલેક્સેન્ડર કોગન દ્વારા “ધીસ ઇસ માય ડીજીટલ લાઈફ” નામની એક એપ બનાવવામાં આવી હતી. જેમાં લોકોની પસંદગીઓ વગેરે પૂછવામાં આવતું હતું અને ફેસબુકનું પ્લેટફોર્મ વાપરી લોકોનો ડેટા તેમની જાણ બહાર સાચવી લેવામાં આવતો હતો તે ડેટા તેણે કેમ્બ્રિજ એનાલિટીકાને લિક કરી દીધો હતો. આવી રીતે, આ એપનો ઉપયોગ 270,000 લોકોએ કર્યો અને ક્વીઝમાં ભાગ લઇ પોતાનો ડેટા તેમની જાણ બહાર પ્રોફેસર એલેક્સેન્ડર કોગનએ આપી દીધો. આ થઇ ફેસબુક સુધી સીમિત વાત જેમાં 2015 માં ફેસબુકના પ્લેટફોર્મનો ઉપયોગ કરી ડેટા ચોરી કરવામાં આવ્યો હતો. જેની ફેસબુકને જાણ પણ નહોતી. આ બધી ગતિવિધિઓ ફેસબુકના નીતિ નિયમો બહારની છે, અને ફેસબુક આવી ગતિવિધિઓની પરવાનગી આપતી નથી. હવે પછી કેમ્બ્રિજ એનાલિટીકાના પ્લેટફોર્મનું કામ શરુ થાય છે. પ્રોફેસર એલેક્સેન્ડર કોગનએ આ બધો ડેટા પોતાની એપમાં સાચવી લીધો હતો અને આ જ ડેટાનો ઉપયોગ કેમ્બ્રિજ એનાલિટીકાએ કર્યો હતો. કેમ્બ્રિજ એનાલિટીકાના વાઈસ પ્રેસિડેન્ટ સ્ટીવ બેનોનએ આ બધી ડેટા માહિતીઓ ટ્રમ્પના કેમ્પેઈનને જણાવી હતી અને આમ ટ્રમ્પને માહિતીઓ મળી હતી. ટ્રમ્પના કેમ્પઇનનું કામકાજ SCL ગ્રુપ પાસે હતું અને SCL ગ્રુપે જ ટ્રમ્પને કેમ્પઈન દરમિયાન મદદ કરી હતી. જેમકે SCL ગ્રુપ જ કેમ્બ્રિજ એનાલિટીકાનું પરેન્ટ ગ્રુપ છે. જે બ્રિટીશની એક પબ્લિક રીલેશનની પેઢી છે અને સરકાર, નેતા, અને વિશ્વભરની મીલીટરીઓ માટે કામ કરે છે. તે ડોનાલ્ડ ટ્રમ્પ માટે 2016 ચુંટણી કેમ્પેઈન દરમિયાન ડીજીટલી કામ કરી લોકોને ટ્રમ્પ વિશે સારા-સારા મેસેજ કરી અને લોકોની માનસિકતા ફેરવતી હતી. ખરેખરમાં SCL જ 2016 કેમ્પેઈનમાં ટ્રમ્પને મદદ કરી હતી, જેથી સાબિત થાય છે કે ટ્રમ્પએ CA ની મદદ લઇ અને ચૂંટણી જીતી હતી.

 

By Samir Parmar

[email protected]

 

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  70. On January 19th, we lost Officer Kaulike Kalama to a gun shot wound. Today, his wife Kaohinani has past away from a Brain Aneurism. My heart is aching for their 15 year old son Mana Boy. I’m so sorry for your loss . It’s been a difficult year for you

     
  71. We’re sad to hear of the passing of Canadian jazz great Hugh Fraser. The Juno-winning pianist, trombonist, composer, and educator had been diagnosed with cancer in 2017.

     
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  77. The Defense Department said late Monday that there is “no corroborating evidence” to support the explosive New York Times report last week that said the Russian military offered bounties to Taliban-linked militants to kill U.S. troops in Afghanistan.

     
  78. Sending 15 riot gear wearing FBI agents to a harmless old man with CNN there to capture showed how biased this was not to mention the legality of crimes charged ! KAG2020

     
  79. UPDATE: A total of 38 114 #COVID19 tests were conducted in the last 24 hours. Regrettably, we report 174 more #COVID19 related deaths, bringing the total number of deaths to 4346. The number of recoveries is 146 279 (49 recovery rate) We send our deepest condolences

     
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