ડોકલામ પર ચીનની કૂતનીતિ

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ચીન પોતાની 1990 પછી અર્થતંત્રમાં આવેલી કે પછી થયેલી તેજીના લીધે જગતભરમાં સુપ્રસિદ્ધ છે. તેમનાં પુર્ખોનાં આપેલા સંદેશાઓ અને જાણકારીઓના કારણે ચીનનું એવું માનવું છે કે ચીન અડધા એશિયામાં ફેલાયેલું છે અને આ કારણસર જ તેની પડખે પડતાં પાડોશી દેશો પ્રત્યે ચીનના અવનવા સરહદ વિવાદો નિરંતર ઘટતા જ રહે છે. આશરે 18 જેટલા દેશો છે જેમના જોડે ચીનના સરહદી વિવાદો ઘટયા છે. પાકિસ્તાનને બાકાત ગણશુ કારણ છે પાકિસ્તાનમાં બની રહેલા ચીન સહાય દ્રારાનાં પ્રોજેકટસ જેનાં લીધે જ ચીન-પાક વચ્ચે મિત્રતામાં ઘનિષ્ટતા જોવા મળી છે પરંતું તેં જ પાક અંદાજે ચીનના કરજામાં ડૂબી જશે. બાકી સરહદ વિવાદોમાં ભારત પણ શામેલ ગણાશે જેમના વિશે સવિસ્તાર માહીતી સમજશુ.

તાજેતરની જ ઍક વાત ખૉતરી અને બહાર કાઢવામાં આવે તો જૂન 2017 માં ભારત-ચીન વચ્ચે યુદ્ધ જેવું માહોલ સર્જાઈ ગયું હતુ. કારણ રહ્યુ હતુ ડોકલામ ટ્રાઇ જંકશન પોઇન્ટ જેની સીમા ભારત, ભૂટાન, અને ચીનને જોડતી કડી સામાન છે. ખબર મળ્યા અનુસાર ચીન ડોકલામથી થોડા જ કિ.મી. દુર યૉદોંગ નામક રસ્તાનું નિર્માણ કરી રહ્યુ હતુ જે માહીતી ભૂટાનને મળી હતી. માહીતી અને સ્થિતી નાજુક હોવાના કારણે ભૂતાનએ ભારત પાસેથી મદદનો હાથ માંગ્યો અને ભારતએ નમ્રતાપૂર્વક મદદને ફરજ સમજી અને મદદ કરી હતી જેનાં કારણે ભારત અને ચીનનાં સંબંધોમાં ખટાશ આવી હતી. હવે આ મુદ્દે ઊંડાણભેર સમજવા ઇતિહાસ પાર નજર દોડવશુ. 1890 માં બ્રિટન-ચીન વચ્ચે દસ્તાવેજી કાર્યવાહીઓ અને એગ્રીમેન્ટ સહી થયા હતાં. જેમાં ડોકલામને ચીનએ પોતાનો ભાગ જણાવ્યો હતો. પત્રવ્યવહાર દ્રારા 1959માં જવાહરલાલ નહેરુજીએ પત્રમાં આ અહેવાલને માન્ય ગણાવ્યો હતો પરંતું ડોકલામ મુદ્દે ધ્યાન દોર્યું ન હતુ તેથી ડોકલામ પોઈંટ્ને ક્યાંય પ્રસ્તુત કરાયું ન હતુ. બસ, આ તક ચીનને મળી ગઇ અને ત્યારથી ચીનનું એવું માનવું છે કે ડોકલામ ચીનનો ભાગ છે.

આ રોડ નિર્માણ જો સંપુર્ણ થઇ જાત તો ચીનને ઘાણા ખરાં ફાયદાઓ માગ્યા વગર થાય એમ હતાં. એટલાં માટે જ ચીન આવી કૂતનીતિ પર ઉતારી આવ્યુ હતુ.
સર્વપ્રથમ તો ચીનને એ ફાયદો થાય કે ચીન પોતાની સૈન્ય રસ્તાના માધ્યમથી ડોકલામ સમીપ તૈનાત કરી શકે એમ હતુ. જો આવુ થાય તો રાયના દાણા જેવડા ભૂટાનને ચીન સરળતાથી યુદ્ધ દ્રારા પોતાની સરહદ માં ગળી જાય તેમ હતુ. આ દ્રારા ભારતનો ચિકન નેક એરિયા જે સેવન સિસ્ટર રાજ્યને અને ભારતને જોડે છે એ પણ નબળો પડી શકે એમ હતો. આથી ચીન સરળતાથી ભવિષ્યમાં ભારતના બે ભાગલા કરી શકે કારણ કે ચીન ને ખબર છે ભારતનું સૈન્ય બળ યુદ્ધ માટે સક્ષમ તો છે પરંતું ચીનનાં સૈન્યની તુલનામાં ટેક્નોલોજી અને માત્રામાં નબળું પડે છે. આવુ થાય નહીં પરંતું આવી બાબતોમાં ચીન નો કાંઇ ભરોસો પણ ન કરી શકાય. આ દ્રારા ચીન ભારતના પાડોશી દેશોની મિત્રતા પણ નબળી કરી શકે છે.

ઍક ચીની ન્યુઝ ચેનલ એ તો ભૂટાન ગવર્મેન્ટને ભારતની કઠપૂતળી પણ કહી દીધુ હતુ ઉમેરતા જણાવ્યું હતુ કે ભૂટાનને ભારતીય પોલિસીથી જાગૃત રહેવાની જરૂર છે. છે ને નવાઈની વાત ? કારણ કે આ એ જ ચીન છે જે સમગ્ર એશિયા પોતાના નામે કરાવી લેવા માંગે છે, જે પોતે પોતાને ત્યાં જ સામ્યવાદી સરકાર ધરાવે છે એને વળી બીજા દેશોની ચિંતા તેમને ક્યારથી થવા લાગી ?
ભારતને સાવધાની સાથે સંયુક્ત રાષ્ટ્રની મદદથી અથવા પોતાના પગ પર ઉભા રહી સર્વ દેશોનું જેમાં હિત જણાતું હોય તેમ ચાલવાની જરૂર હતી જે ભારતએ ભલીભાંતિ કર્યું. ભારતને ખબર હતી કે એ દાંત માત્ર દેખાડવા માટે જ હતા હકીકત કાંઇક બીજી પણ હોઇ શકે આથી ચીનનાં સોપાનો, કાર્યપ્રણાલી, અને કૂટનીતિક ચકરવ્યુહને ભારતએ ઝીણવટ પૂર્વક સમજવાની જરૂર છે. ભારતનાં વિદેશ મંત્રી શ્રી સુષ્મા સ્વરાજજી એ ખૂબ ચપળતાપૂર્વક આવી મોટી અને સંવેદનશીલ બાબતનો ઉકેલ કરી પાડી છે અને ભારત આમ જ ન્યાય અને શાંતિ માટે લડવા તૈયાર છે. ફિલિપઇંસ, જાપાન, વિયેતનામ, અફઘાનિસ્તાન, કઝાકસ્તાન જેવા પાડોશી દેશો જોડે ભારતને વધારે માં વધારે મૈત્રી સાધવી અનિવાર્ય છે જેથી એકતા જળવાઈ રહે અને આવા સંવેદનશીલ મુદ્દાનો એકતાથી સામનો થઈ શકે. ભાવી ભવિષ્યમાં પણ જો ચીન આવી કૂટનીતિક ચાલો ચાલે તો ચીનનાં સામાનનો બહિષ્કાર કરવો જરુરી છે જેથી સીધી અસર ચીનના અર્થતંત્ર પર પડે અને સબક મેળવી ચીન આવી ચાલો ચાલવાની ભવિષ્યમાં વિચારમાત્ર પણ ન કરી શકે.

Samir Parmar

[email protected]

 

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